Email to:

etaub@uab.edu

Dr. Edward Taub

University Professor / Director - C.I. Therapy

EDUCATION:

B.A., Brooklyn College
M.A., Columbia University
Ph.D., 1970, New York University

RESEARCH PROGRAMS:

Edward Taub is a behavioral neuroscientist who developed a new family of techniques, termed Constraint-Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy, which has been shown to be effective in improving the rehabilitation of movement after stroke and other neurological injuries. At this point CI therapy has been used with thousands of stroke patients in this country, Germany and Scandinavia. It is currently the subject of the first multi-center national clinical trial for stroke rehabilitation funded by NIH. This work is derived from basic research he carried out with deafferented monkeys whose upper extremities had been surgically deprived of sensation.

CI Therapy consists of a family of therapies; their common element is that they teach the brain to "rewire" itself following a major injury such as stroke or traumatic brain injury. This is based upon research carried out by Edward Taub, Ph.D. and collaborators showing that patients can "learn" to improve the motor ability of the more-affected parts of their bodies and thus cease to rely exclusively or primarily on the less-affected parts. These therapies have significantly improved quality of movement and substantially increased the amount of use of a more-affected extremity in the activities of daily living for a large number of patients.

Since 1997, Dr. Taub has received 9 awards from national professional societies including: Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology of the American Psychological Association (2004) and the William James Award, Amer. Psychol. Soc. (1997). In addition, CI therapy was named by the Society for Neuroscience as one of top 10 Translational Neuroscience Accomplishments of the 20th century (2003) and one of the 10 “most exciting lines of neuroscience” currently being carried out (2005).

The CI therapy group is divided into two separate entities: 1)
The Taub Training Clinic, and 2)

The CI therapy research laboratory. The Taub Training Clinic administers CI therapy primarily to patients after stroke and, at present, for the upper extremity only.

A second line of collaborative research stemming from the earlier research with monkeys has led to the discovery that "massive cortical reorganization" takes place after somatosensory deafferentation in monkeys (in collaboration with Tim Pons, Mortimer Mishkin, Jon Kaas and others) and that this also occurs after the severing of the nerves of an arm produced by amputation in humans. These findings confirm, contrary to a classic axiom in neuroscience, that there is considerable reorganizational plasticity in the nervous systems of adult mammals, including humans, after neurological injury. The general purpose of Dr. Taub’s subsequent work in this area has been to identify the functional significance of cortical reorganization for the behavior and perception of humans. For example, Dr. Taub, collaborating with Thomas Elbert and Herta Flor, found that the amount of cortical reorganization is very strongly correlated with amount of phantom limb pain in upper extremity human amputees and with tinnitus. This work identifies long-sought central nervous system correlates of these conditions. Dr. Taub collaborating with Thomas Elbert, has also found that there is an expansion in the cortical representation of the fingering digits of the left hand in string players. In addition, this team found that disorder occurs in the cortical representation of the fingers of multifinger blind Braille readers and is associated with an unusual perceptual abnormality such that these blind persons cannot correctly identify which finger is being touched. Further, Elbert and Taub found in musicians with focal dystonia, who lose the ability to control the movement of the digits in musical performance, that the cortical representation of the fingers is much closer together for the dystonic hand than for the fingers of nondystonic musicians. A successful therapy has been developed based on this finding and is designed to unfuse the cortical representation of the dystonic fingers. At present, there are no other efficacious therapies for this condition. This and other work has led to an emerging picture of a very plastic adult human brain that appears to keep reorganizing itself to adjust to the environmental demands placed upon it. In ongoing work, Dr. Taub, in collaboration with Professors Wolfgang Miltner and Cornelius Weiller and Joachim Liepert of the University of Jena, have obtained converging evidence that CI Therapy leads to a very large use-dependent cortical reorganization, so that a more extensive area of cortex is involved in innervating movement than before therapy. This appears to be the first demonstration of a change in brain function associated with a therapy-induced improvement in recovery of motor ability in humans. It has opened the door for the now-frequently heard objective of harnessing brain plasticity to create new therapies for conditions that until now had been refractory to treatment.

In another line of investigation with Wolfgang Miltner, it was found that there is an increase in the coherence of gamma-band (very fast) EEG activity during classical conditioning. Other related work with another type of learning suggests that coherent gamma-band EEG activity may be involved in Hebbian cell assembly formation. This mechanism is thought to be a fundamental property of the nervous system that is central to the process of learning. In additional current work, Professor Miltner, Dr. Thomas Weiss and Dr. Taub have found that after upper extremity amputation, wearing a functional Sauerbruch artificial arm produces a pronounced decrease in phantom limb pain, presumably as a result of the increased use that the artificial arm induces in the amputation stump. In nine of 11 patients, phantom limb pain (frequently very intense) was completely abolished at the time of the study.
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REPRESENTATIVE PUBLICATIONS:

Taub, E. (1980). Somatosensory deafferentation research with monkeys: Implications for rehabilitation medicine. In L. P. Ince (Ed.), Behavioral Psychology in Rehabilitation Medicine: Clinical Applications (pp. 371-401). New York: Williams & Wilkins.

Taub, E., Miller, N. E., Novack, T. A., Cook, E. W. III, Fleming, W. C., Nepomuceno, C. S., Connell, J. S., & Crago, J. E. (1993). Technique to improve chronic motor deficit after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 347-354.

Taub, E. (1999). Guest editorial. New discovery equals change in clinical practice. J. Rehab. Res. Devel., 36, vii-viii.

Taub, E, Uswatte, G., & Pidikiti, R. (1999). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A new family of techniques with broad application to physical rehabilitation—a clinical review. J. Rehab. Res. Devel., 36, 237-251.

Liepert, J., Bauder, H., Miltner, W. H. R., Taub, E., & Weiller, C. (2000). Treatment-induced massive cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke, 31.

Taub, E., Uswatte, G., King, D. K., Morris, D. M., Crago, J. E., & Chatterjee, A (2006). A placebo controlled trial of Constraint-Induced Movement therapy for upper extremity after stroke. Stroke, 37, 1045-1049.

Origin of CI Therapy in Basic Research with Monkeys

Taub, E. (1977). Movement in nonhuman primates deprived of somatosensory feedback. Exercise and sports science reviews, Vol. 4 (pp. 335-374). Santa Barbara: Journal Publishing Affiliates.

Taub, E. (1980). Somatosensory deafferentation research with monkeys: Implications for rehabilitation medicine. In L. P. Ince (Ed.), Behavioral Psychology in Rehabilitation Medicine: Clinical Applications (pp. 371-401). New York: Williams & Wilkins.

Other CI Therapy References: Clinical Results

Taub, E. (1994). Overcoming learned nonuse: A new behavioral medicine approach to physical medicine. In J. G. Carlson, S. R. Seifert, & N. Birbaumer. (eds.) Clinical applied psychophysiology (pp. 185-220). New York: Plenum.

Taub, E., Burgio, L., Miller, N. E., Cook, E.W. III, Groomes, T., DeLuca, S., & Crago, J. (1994). An operant approach to overcoming learned nonuse after CNS damage in monkeys and man: The role of shaping. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 61, 281-293.

Taub, E., & Crago, J. E. (1995). Behavioral plasticity following central nervous system damage in monkeys and man. In B.Julesz & I. Kovacs (Eds.), Maturational windows and adult cortical plasticity. SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, vol. 23 (pp. 201-215). Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Taub, E., & Crago, J. E. (1995). Overcoming learned nonuse: A new behavioral approach to physical medicine. In T. Kikuchi, H. Sakuma, I. Saito, & K. Tsuboi (Eds.), Biobehavioral self-regulation: Eastern and western perspectives (pp. 2-9). Tokyo: Springer Verlag.

Taub, E., Pidikiti, R. D., DeLuca, S. C., & Crago, J. E. (1996). Effects of motor restriction of an unimpaired upper extremity and training on improving functional tasks and altering brain/behaviors. In J. Toole (Ed.), Imaging and Neurologic Rehabilitation (pp. 133-154). New York: Demos Publications.

Taub, E., & Wolf, S.L. (1997). Constraint-Induced (CI) Movement techniques to facilitate upper extremity use in stroke patients. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 3, 38-61.

Morris, D.M., Crago, J.E., DeLuca, S.C., Pidikiti, R.D. & Taub, E. (1997). Constraint-Induced (CI) Movement Therapy for motor recovery after stoke. Neurorehab., 9, 29-43.

Taub, E., Crago, J.E., & Uswatte, G. (1998). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A new approach to treatment in physical rehabilitation. Rehab. Psychol., 43, 152-170.

Miltner, W.H.R., Bauder, H., Sommer, M., Dettmers, C., & Taub, E. (1999). Effects of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy on chronic stroke patients: A replication. Stroke, 30, 586-592.

Kunkel, A., Kopp, B., Muller, G., Villringer, K., Villringer, A., Taub, E., & Flor, H. (1999). Constraint-induced movement therapy: A powerful new technique to induce motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 80, 624-628.

Taub, E., & Uswatte, G. (2000). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy and massed practice: Reply to van der Lee et al. Stroke, 31 (4), 983-4.

Taub, E., & Uswatte, G. (2000). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy based on behavioral neuroscience. In R. G. Frank and T. R. Elliott (Eds.) Handbook of Rehabilitation Psychology. pp. 475-496. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Morris, D., Crago, J., Uswatte, G., Wolf, S., Cook, E.W. III, & Taub, E. (2001). The reliability of the Wolf Motor Function Test for assessing upper extremity function following stroke. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabi, 82, 750-755.

Bauder, H., Taub, E., & Miltner, W.H.R. (2001). Behandlung motorischer Störungen nach Schlagenfall: Die Taubsche Bewegungsinduktionstherapie. [Treatment of Motor Disorders after Stroke: The Taub Movement Induction Therapy.] Hofgrete – Verlag: Göttingen.

Taub, E., & Morris, D. M. (2001).Constraint-Induced Movement therapy to enhance recovery after stroke. Current Artherosclerosis Reports, 3, 279-286.

Morris, D. M., & Taub, E. (2001).  The Constraint-Induced Movement therapy approach to restoring function after neurological injury.  Top. Stroke Rehabil, 8, 16-30.

Taub, E., Uswatte, G., Elbert, T. An impending paradigm shift: The melding of basic research in neuroscience and behavioral science to produce new treatments in neurorehabilitation. Nature Rev Neurosci, requested by editor, final draft circulated among co-authors.

Mennemeyer, S. T., Uswatte, G., & Taub, E. Paying for post-stroke rehabilitation with Constraint-Induced Movement therapy: Some problems and opportunities. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Sterr, A., Elbert, T., Berthold, I., Kölbel, S., Rockstroh, B., & Taub, E.(2002). CI therapy in chronic hemiparesis: The more the better? Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 83, 1374-1377.

Mark, V., & Taub, E. (2003). Cortical reorganization and the rehabilitation of movement by CI therapy after neurologic injury. In: L. Pessoa & P. de Weerd (Eds.), From Perceptual Completion to Skill Learning. Oxford University Press, pp. 281-294.

Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Bulach, D., Meinzer, M., Taub, E.(2003). Die Fortentwicklung der Neurorehabilitation auf verhaltensneurowissen-schaftlicher Grundlage: Beispiel Constraint-induced-Therapie. [The advancement of neurorehabilitation on the basis of behavioral neuroscience: The example of CI therapy.] Nervenarzt, 74, 334-342.

Morris, D., & Taub, E. (2003). Maximizing function after stroke: Anexplanation of the innovative Constraint-Induced therapy-from those who developed it. Advance for Physical Therapists & PT Assistants, January, 11-12.

Wittenberg, G. F., Chen, R., Ishii, K., Bushara, K. 0., Eckloff, S., Croarkin, E., Taub, E., Gerber, L.H., Hallett, M., & Cohen, L.G. (2003). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy in stroke:  Magnetic-stimulation of motor maps and cerebral activation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 17, 48-57.

Winstein, C., Miller, P., Blanton, S., Taub, E., Morris, D., Uswatte, G., Nichols, D., & Wolf, S. (2003). Methods for a multi-site randomized trial to investigate the effect of Constraint-Induced Movement therapy in improving upper extremity function among adults recovering from a cerebrovascular stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 17, 137-152.

Taub, E., Uswatte, G., & Morris, D. (2003). Improved motor recovery after stroke and massive cortical reorganization following Constraint-Induced Movement therapy. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Amer., 14, S77-S91.

Morris, DM., Taub, E., & Uswatte, G. (2003). Making gains: Constraint-Induced Movement therapy can improve motor function in people with TBI. ADVANCE for Directors of Rehabilitation, 12, 51-54.

Taub, E,, Uswatte, G. (2003). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy: Bridging from the primate laboratory to the stroke rehabilitation laboratory. J. Rehabil. Med. Suppl., 41, 34-40.

Taub, E., & Uswatte, G. (2003). The case for CI therapy.[Letter to the

Editor]. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 40, xiii-xvi.

Whitehead, W.E., Bassotti, G., Palsson, 0., Taub, E., Cook, E.C. III, Drossman, D.A. (2003). Factor analysis of bowel symptoms in US and Italian populations. Digestive & Liver Disease, 35, 774—783.

Sanger, T.D., Delgado, M.R., Gaebler-Spira, D., Hallett, M., Mink, J.W., et al. (2003). Classification and definition of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood. Pediatrics, 111, 89-97.

Wittenberg, G. F., Chen, R., Ishii, K., Bushara, K. O., Eckloff, S., Croarkin, E., Taub, E., Gerber, L. H., Halett, M., & Cohen, L. G. (2003). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy in stroke: Magnetic-stimulation motor maps and cerebral activation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair,  17, 48-56.

Taub, E., Ramey, S., DeLuca, S., & Echols, K. (2004). Efficacy of Constraint-Induced (CI) Movement therapy for children with cerebral palsy with asymmetric motor impairment. Pediatrics, 113, 305-312.

Uswatte, G., & Taub, E. (2004). Participant-centered and objective measures of real-world arm function in persons with stroke [Abstract] Circulation, 109, e231-e284.

Lum, P., Taub, E., Schwandt, D., Postman, M., Hardin, P., & Uswatte, G. (2004). Automated Constraint-Induced therapy extension (AutoCITE) for movement deficits after stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 41, 249-258.

Taub, E. (2004). Harnessing brain plasticity through behavioral techniques to produce new treatments in neurorehabilitation. American Psychologist, 59(8), 692-704.

Mark, V., & Taub, E. (2004). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy for chronic stroke hemiparesis and other disabilities. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 22, 317-336.

Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Pearson, S., Light, K., & Thompson, P. (2004). Validity of the Actual Amount of Use Test: evidence from a multisite, national clinical trial of CI therapy for persons with subacute stroke. Manuscript in preparation.

Dettmers, C., Teske, U., Hamzei, F., Uswatte, G., Taub, E., & Weiller, C. (2005). Distributed form of Constraint-Induced Movement therapy improves functional outcome and quality of life after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 204-209.

Uswatte, G., & Taub, E. (2005). Implications of the learned nonuseformulation for measuring rehabilitation outcomes: The need to evaluate motor ability and actual use in the life situation separately. Rehabilitation Psychology, 50, 34-42.

Weiss, T., Miltner, W., Liepert, J., Meissner, W. & Taub, E. (in press). Relation of disinhibition to cortical reorganization phenomena after nerve block. European Journal of Neuroscience.

Taub, E., & Uswatte, G. (in press). Neurophysiological and behavioral mechanisms associated with treatment outcome of CI therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology.

Taub, E., Lum, P. S., Hardin, P., Mark, V., & Uswatte, G. (2005). AutoCITE: Automated delivery of CI therapy with reduced effort by therapists. Stroke, 36, 1301-1304

Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Morris, D. M., Vignolo, M., & McCullough, K. (2005).  Reliability and validity of the upper-extremity Motor Activity Log-14 for measuring real-world arm use. Stroke; 36, 2496-2499.

Wolf, S., Thompson, P., Morris, D., Rose, D., Winstein, C., Taub, E., & Giuliani, C. (in press). The EXCITE Trial: Baseline attributes of the Wolf Motor Function Test in patients with sub-acute stroke. Stroke.

Lum, P.S., Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Hardin, P., & Mark, V. (in press). A tele-rehabilitation approach to delivery of Constraint-Induced Movement therapy.  Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development

Ro, T., Noser, E., Boake, C., Wallace, R., Gaber, M., Speroni, A., Bernstein, M., DeJoya, A., Burgin, W., Zhang, L., Taub, E., Grotta, J., & Levin, H. (2006) Functional reorganization and reorganization and recovery after constraint induced movement therapy in subacute stroke: case reports. Neurocase, 12, 1-11.

Taub, E., Uswatte, G., King, D. K., Morris, D. M., Crago, J. E., & Chatterjee, A (2006). A placebo controlled trial of Constraint-Induced Movement therapy for upper extremity after stroke. Stroke, 37, 1045-1049.

Taub, E., & Uswatte, G. (2005). Use of CI Therapy for improving motor ability after chronic CNS damage: a development prefigured by Paul Bach-y-Rita.  Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 4, 465-477.

Shaw, S. E., Morris, D. M., Uswatte, G., McKay, S., Abernathy, S., Meythaler, J. M., & Taub, E. (in press). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy for recovery of upper extremity function following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development.

Morris, D. M., Shaw, S. E., Mark, V., Uswatte, G., Barman, J., & Taub, E. (in press). The influence of neuropsychological characteristics on the use of CI therapy with persons with traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation.

Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Morris, D. M., Barman, J., & Crago, J. (in press). Contribution of the shaping and restraint components of Constraint-Induced Movement therapy to treatment outcome. NeuroRehabilitation.

Taub, E., & Uswatte, G. (in press). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy: answers and questions after two decades of research.  NeuroRehabilitation.

Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Morris, D., Light, K., & Thompson, P. (2005). Validity of the Motor Activity Log-28 for measuring real-world arm use: evidence from a multisite trial of CI therapy for persons with subacute stroke. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Mennemeyer, S. T., Taub, E., Uswatte, G., & Pearson, S. (in press). Employment in households with stroke after Constraint-Induced Movement therapy. NeuroRehabilitation.

Wolf, S. L., Winstein, C., Miller, J. P., Taub, E., Uswatte, G., Morris, D., Giuliani, C., Light, K., & Nichols-Larsen, D. (2006). Improving upper extremity function among patients 3-9 months post-stroke: the EXCITE national randomized clinical trial.  Manuscript submitted for publication.

Taub, E., Morris, D., Delgado, A., Pearson, S., & Uswatte, G. Manual for CI therapy.  In preparation. 

Pediatric CI Therapy

Taub, E., Ramey, S. L., DeLuca, S., & Echols, K. (2004). Efficacy of Constraint-Induced (CI) Movement therapy for children with cerebral palsy with asymmetric motor impairment. Pediatrics, 113, 2, 305-312.

DeLuca, S. C., Echols, K., Ramey, S. L., & Taub, E. Constraint-Induced Movement therapy in pediatrics: Case study involving two therapy epochs. Physical Therapy, 83, 1003-1013.

DeLuca, S.C., Echols, K., Ramey, S.L., & Taub, E.  (2004) Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement therapy for a young child with cerebral palsy: Two episodes of care.  Physical Therapy, 63, 1003-1013.

CI Aphasia Therapy

Pulvermüller, F., Neininger, B., Elbert, T., Mohr, B., Rockstroh, B., Koebbel, P., Taub, E. (2001). Constraint-Induced Therapy of chronic aphasia after stroke. Stroke, 31, 1621-1626.

Taub, E. (2002). CI therapy: A new rehabilitation technique for aphasia and motor disability after neurological injury. Klinik und Forschung, 8, 48-49.

Meinzer, M., Elbert, T., Barthel, G., Djundja, D., Taub, E., and Rockstroh, B. (2006) ”Extending the Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CIMT) approach to cognitive functions: Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy (CIAT) of chronic aphasia.” NeuroRehabil, in press.

 CI Therapy for Focal Hand Dystonia

Elbert, T., Candia, V., Altenmüller, E., Rau, H., Sterr, A., Rockstroh, B., Pantev, C., & Taub, E. (1998). Alteration of digital representations in somatosensory cortex in focal hand dystonia. NeuroReport, 9, 3571-3575.

Candia, V., Elbert, T., Altenmüller, E., Rau, H., Schäfer, T., & Taub, E. (1999). A Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for focal hand dystonia in musicians. The Lancet, 353, 42.

Candia, V., Elbert, T., Altenmüller, E., Rau, H., Schäfer, T., Rockstroh, B., & Taub, E. (2002) Sensory motor retuning: A behavioral treatment for focal hand dystonia of pianists and guitarists. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 1374-1377.

A Principle of CI Therapy for Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain

Weiss, T., Miltner, W.H.R., Adler, T., Brückner, L., & Taub, E. (1999). Decrease in phantom limb pain associated with prosthesis-induced increased use of an amputation stump. Neurosci. Lett., 272, 131-134.

CI Therapy: Effects on Brain Organization and Function

Liepert, J., Bauder, H., Miltner, W.H.R., Taub, E., & Weiller, C.(2000). Treatment-induced massive cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke, 31.

Liepert, J., Bauder, H., Sommer, M., Miltner, W.H.R., Dettmers, C., Taub, E., Weiller, C. (1998). Motor cortex plasticity during Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in chronic stroke patients. Neurosci. Lett., 250, 5-8.

Kopp, B., Kunkel, A., Mühlnickel, W., Villringer, K., Taub, E., & Flor, H. (1999). Plasticity in the motor system correlated with therapy-induced improvement of movement in human stroke patients. NeuroReport, 10, 807-810.

Bauder, H., Sommer, M., Taub, E. & Miltner, W.H.R. (1999). Effect of CI Therapy on movement-related brain potentials. Psychophysiol, 36, Suppl. 1, S31. (Abstract)

Braun, C., Schweizer, R., Elbert, T., Birbaumer, N., & Taub, E. (2000). Differential reorganization in somatosensory cortex for different discrimination tasks. J. Neurosci., 20, 446-450.

Wittenberg, G. F., Chen, R., Ishii, K., Bushara, K. 0., Eckloff, S., Croarkin, E., Taub, E., Gerber, L.H., Hallett, M., & Cohen, L.G. (2003). Constraint-Induced Movement therapy in stroke:  Magnetic-stimulation of motor maps and cerebral activation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 17, 48-57.

Boake, C., Noser, E.A., Ro, T., Baraniuk, S., Gaber, M., Johnson, R., Salmeron, E.T., Tran, T.M., Lai, J.M., Taub, E., Moye, L.A., Grotta, J.C., and Levin, H.S. “Effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy in early stroke rehabilitation.” Manuscript submitted for publication

Accelerometry, Additional Real World Outcome Measures and Other Measurement Issues

Uswatte, G., Miltner, W.H.R., Varma, M., Foo, B., Moran, S., Sharma, V., & Taub, E. (2000) Objective measurement of a real-world rehabilitation outcome using accelerometer recordings transformed with a threshold filter. Stroke., 31, 662-667.

Uswatte, G., & Taub, E., (1999). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: New approaches to outcome measurement in rehabilitation. In D.T. Stuss, G. Winocur, & I.H. Robertson (Eds.), Cognitive neurorehabilitation: A comprehensive approach. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 214-229.

Keil, A., Elbert, T., & Taub, E. (1999). Relation of accelerometer and EMG recordings for measurement of upper extremity movement. J. Psychophysiol., 13, 77-82.

Kopp, B., Kunkel, A., Flor, H., Platz, T., Rose, U., Mauritz, K.H., Gresser, K., McCulloch. K.L., & Taub, E. (1997). The Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT): Reliability, validity and sensitivity to change. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab., 78, 615-620.

Morris, D., Crago, J., Uswatte, G., Wolf, S., Cook, E.W. III, & Taub, E. (2001). The reliability of the Wolf Motor Function Test for assessing upper extremity function following stroke. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabi, 82, 750-755.

Uswatte, G. & Taub, E. (2005). Implications of the learned nonuse formulation for measuring rehabilitation outcomes: The need to evaluate motor ability and actual use in the life situation separately. Rehabilitation Psychology, 50, 34-42.

Uswatte, G. & Taub, E. (submitted). Reliability and validity of the 14-item Motor Activity Log for measuring real-world arm use.

Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Morris, D. M., Vignolo, M., & McCullough, K. (2005). Reliability and validity of the upper-extremity Motor Activity Log-14 for measuring real-world arm use. Stroke, 36, 2496-2499

Uswatte, G., Foo, W. L., Olmstead, H., Lopez, K., Holand, A., & Simms, M. L. (2005). Ambulatory monitoring of arm movement using accelerometry: an objective measure of upper-extremity rehabilitation in persons with chronic stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 1498-1501

Uswatte, G., Taub, E., Morris, D., Light, K., & Thompson, P. (2005). Reliability and validity of the Motor Activity Log-28 for measuring daily arm use after stroke. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Papers on Cortical Reorganization Leading up to the Work of the Effect of CI Therapy on Brain Reorganization and Function

Pons, T. P., Garraghty, P. E., Ommaya, A. K., Kaas, J. H., Taub, E. & Mishkin, M. (1991). Massive cortical reorganization after sensory deafferentation in adult macaques. Science, 252, 1857-1860.

Rausell, E., Cusick, C.G., Taub, E., & Jones, E. G. (1992). Chronic deafferentation in monkeys differentially affects nociceptive and nonnociceptive pathways distinguished by specific calcium-binding proteins and down-regulates gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors at thalamic levels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 89, 2571-2575.

Elbert, T., Flor, H., Birbaumer, N., Knecht, S., Larbig, W., & Taub, E. (1994). Extensive reorganization of the somatosensory cortex in adult humans after nervous system injury. NeuroReport, 18, 2593-2597.

Flor, H., Elbert, T., Knecht, S., Wienbruch, C., Pantev, C., Birbaumer, N., Larbig, W., & Taub, E. (1995). Phantom limb pain as a perceptual correlate of massive cortical reorganization in upper limb amputees. Nature, 375, 482-484.

Elbert, T., Pantev, C., Rockstroh, B., Wienbruch, C., & Taub, E. (1995). Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science, 270, 305-307.

Taub, E., Flor, H. Knecht, S., & Elbert, T. (1995). Correlation between phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization. Journal of NIH Research, 7, 49-50. (Afterwords)

Knecht, S., Henningsen, T., Elbert, T., Flor, H., Höling, C., Pantev, C., Birbaumer, N., & Taub, E. (1995). Cortical reorganization in human amputees and mislocalization of painful stimuli to the phantom limb. Neuroscience Letters, 201, 262-264.

Knecht, S., Henningsen, H., Elbert, T., Flor, H., Hoeling, C., Pantev., C., & Taub, E., (1996). Reorganizational and perceptual changes after amputation. Brain, 119, 1213-1219.

Elbert, T., Sterr, A., Rockstroh, B., Charbonnier, D., Flor, H., Pantev, C., Wienbruch, C., Knecht, S., & Taub, E. (1996). Cortical reorganization in arm amputees: Alterations of the somatosensory representation of the intact arm. Proceedings of Biomag ’96, 9, 83-86.

Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Montoya, P., Larbig, W., Unerte, K., Grodd, W., Flor, H., & Taub, E. (1997). Effects of regional anesthesia on phantom limb pain are mirrored in changes in cortical reorganization. J. Neurosci., 17, 5503-5508.

Montoya, P., Larbig, W., Grülke, N., Flor, H., Taub, E., & Birbaumer, N. (1997). The relationship of phantom limb pain to other phantom limb phenomena in upper extremity amputees. Pain, 72, 87-93.

Sterr, A., Müller, M. M., Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Pantev, C. & Taub, E., (1998). Changed perceptions in Braille readers. Nature, 391, 134-135.

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Ebert, T., Sterr., A., Rockstroh, B., Pantev, C., Müller, M. M., & Taub, E. Expansion of the tonotopic area in the auditory cortex of the blind. J Neurosci, accepted for publication pending revisions.